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Boris Johnson has announced tax hikes for millions of Britons in order to pump an extra Â£13bn a year into the NHS and social care.
In one of the biggest political gambles of his career, the prime minister confirmed he would raise National Insurance (NI) contributions for employers and employees by 1.25% from April 2022 to fund the new â€œhealth and social care levyâ€.
The move breaks the 2019 Tory election pledge not to increase NI, income tax or VAT, and has already been attacked by backbenchers as â€œun-Conservativeâ€.
But in what appeared to be a bid to limit the political damage, the NI rise will be for just one year and in 2023 the â€œlevyâ€ will take over. From then, the levy will be printed separately on pay packets, while national insurance will revert to its previous rate.
A typical basic rate taxpayer earning Â£24,100 will have to pay Â£180 a year extra in tax, or Â£3.46 a week. A typical higher rate taxpayer earning Â£67,100 will have to pay Â£7.15 a week more in tax.
Speaking in the Commons, Johnson tried to present the plans as fair to all ages as he revealed that working pensioners for the first time would be asked to pay the National Insurance hike.
He also unveiled a new 1.25% increase in tax on income from share dividends to help fund the huge increases in spending required by the NHS and social care plan.
The NHS will get a total of Â£36bn for the next three years, which will increase its capacity by an extra 10% by 2023/24. This change is expected to fund an extra 9 million checks, scans and operations.
Initially, social care will get just Â£5.4bn over the next three years before seeing the bulk of the new levy directed towards the elderly and other adults who need support.
A central plank of the plan is big reform to the social care sector. Many people are currently excluded from state support for social care, as anyone with assets like a home or savings worth more than Â£23,250 is barred from help.
From October 2023 there will be a fourfold increase in that cap on assets to Â£100,000, meaning fewer people will have to sell their homes to afford care in old age.
The new plan means that no one will ever have to pay over Â£86,000 for roughly equivalent to three years of care.