Nicola Sturgeon has been censured by the UKâ€™s chief statistician after using incomplete and unpublished data to claim the coronavirus was five times less prevalent in Scotland than in England.
Ed Humpherson, the director general of the Office of Statistics Regulation, said Sturgeonâ€™s claims earlier in July were not based on comparable or published data, and should not have been made. â€œThe sources used to underpin this claim have been difficult to identify,â€ he told Sturgeonâ€™s government.
In an official letter to Roger Halliday, the Scottish governmentâ€™s chief statistician, Humpherson said he did not believe the sources used by Sturgeon were robust enough, following an investigation into complaints about the first ministerâ€™s statements.
After analysing the data sources given to him by Sturgeonâ€™s officials, he told Halliday: â€œWe do not think that the sources [provided] allow for a quantified and uncaveated comparison of the kind that was made. In future if such comparisons are made, we would expect to see sources made publicly available.â€
Sturgeon said earlier this month that she was worried Scotland could be put at risk because of â€œshambolicâ€ policies on foreign travel and air bridges then being pushed by ministers in England.
On 3 July, she said she would resist pressure to agree quickly to the UK governmentâ€™s proposals for quarantine-free travel from other countries with low infection rates, because she wanted to ensure Scotlandâ€™s steep decline in Covid-19 cases was protected.
â€œWhen so much is at stake as it is right now, we canâ€™t allow ourselves to be dragged along in the wake of another governmentâ€™s, to be quite frank about it, shambolic decision-making process,â€ she said then.
Sturgeon went on to say: â€œWe assess that the prevalence of the virus in Scotland, right now, is five times lower than it is in England. Northern Ireland actually faces a similar issue.
â€œSo that means that there may well be cases where the UK government is admitting visitors to England without quarantine from countries that donâ€™t present a significant risk of raising infection levels there, but would create that risk in Scotland.â€
Humpherson said that claim could not be substantiated. The Scottish government had used Scottish modelling done by its experts and then compared it against unpublished modelling from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, which used a UK prevalence figure as a proxy for England. It then used other data from the Office for National Statistics which was based on a different time period and estimates than the Scottish data.
Humpherson said Sturgeon should have shared the sources and justification for her comparison because it used unpublished data.
â€œThere are lessons to be learnt in this case, with different data sources being quoted to the media and to us. We expect that any figures used are appropriately sourced, explained and available in the public domain,â€ he said.
â€œIt is important to recognise that a comparison of Covid-19 prevalence rates is not straightforward. If it is to be undertaken, the results and the uncertainties should be communicated transparently. [In] future if such comparisons are made, we would expect to see sources made publicly available and a clear explanation of the limitations and associated uncertainty.â€
In a further letter about the figures, David Norgrove, the chairman of the UK Statistics Authority, told the Tory MSP Miles Briggs that the sources given by the Scottish government to justify Sturgeonâ€™s assertion â€œdo not allow for a meaningful comparison to be madeâ€.
Miles Briggs, the Scottish Conservatives shadow health secretary, said Sturgeon should apologise for using misleading data. He said it had inflamed border tensions with England and was wrongly used to justify keeping Scottish businesses closed for longer than necessary.
â€œThe first ministerâ€™s use of these dodgy statistics even led to repeated warnings that the border could be closed which, in turn, triggered ugly protests that have damaged Scotlandâ€™s reputation as a welcoming country.
â€œIt is hard not to conclude that the first minister pushed this unreliable comparison, with no context, for her own political purposes.â€
The Scottish government defended the first ministerâ€™s use of the data, and said she had used the best available statistics. â€œThe decisions we are taking to ease lockdown restrictions while still suppressing the virus are based on prevalence data,â€ a spokeswoman said. â€œIt is legitimate to use the evidence that is available to highlight differences in prevalence.â€
She added that the Scottish government had been applauded by the Office for Statistics Regulation for regularly releasing more data than the UK government.
â€œWe continue to push the UK government to take the same approach and to publish Covid-19 prevalence statistics that would make this information publicly available.â€